如果您的房屋在暴风雨或其他类型的电气中断期间失去了电力,那么您可能很清楚我们对电力的依赖程度。

Without electricity, practically nothing works, from appliances and lights to computers and air conditioners. Even some types of phones and heating equipment become worthless. Electricity is integral to our way of life.

A home’s electrical system includes incoming power lines, an electric meter, a service panel, subpanels, household wiring, electrical boxes, receptacles (outlets), switches, and, of course, the appliances, lights, and equipment that put the power to work.

房屋中的其他电气系统包括用于家庭娱乐的接线,例如有线电视,家庭剧院和音频系统,更不用说家庭通信的接线,例如电话,安全系统,门铃和对讲机。

家用电气系统
家庭电气系统的组件

在家庭电气系统上的工作可能是合理的。

根据类型,家庭布线可能很危险。必须仔细处理提供电源插座,灯光和设备的标准电压电线,以避免冲击或电造影(见下文)。

But, if you follow expert instructions and turn off the power to circuits and devices before working on them, you can do this type of work safely. Low-voltage wiring for cable television, speakers, and security systems is very safe for do-it-yourselfers to handle.

This section of HomeTips offers information and instruction on a house’s electrical system.

购买指南

To safely work on your home’s electrical system, you need the right tools. All are common and inexpensive. In theElectrical Tools Buying Guide, we take you through 8 tools that will allow you to work on virtually any electrical repair or project.

How An Electrical System Works

A home electrical system is an intricate maze of wiring designed to deliver power from a local utility to your home safely and efficiently.How a Home Electrical System Works是一个概述,其中包括各种组件及其所使用设备的图表。

从那里开始,我们从电源术语开始,然后带您了解电气服务的工作原理,对电表的理解以及对主电气面板和分支面板的详细描述。

Repair & Care of an Electrical System

If you have any discomfort working with your electrical system, you should not hesitate to call in a professional. Still, if your system is having problems, you may be able to easily troubleshoot the cause. InTroubleshooting Home Electrical Problems, we detail the most common problems and how to diagnose them.

安全处理电气系统的关键之一是确保所有电路都正确接地。有关此信息的更多信息,请参阅Electrical Grounding

这是一个简短的解释:

Electrical current travels in a continuous closed path from the source (your home’s electrical panel) through a device that uses the power, such as a light, and then back to the source.

但电力没有流过电线for the return trip to the source. It can return to the source through any conductor—including a person. The conductor just has to contact the earth directly or touch a conductive material (such a water or metal) that goes to the earth.

If you accidentally become the conducting link in an electrically live circuit, you’ll get a shock—or worse.

这里的关键是“链接”。

You can get an electrical shock if you are touching a live wire or device at the same time you’re touching a grounded object (or another live wire).

This may sound unlikely, but if you’re touching any metal plumbing fixture, standing on the ground or anything connected to the ground, on a damp patio, or with your feet in water, you’re in contact with a grounded object. That’s when you’ll get a shock if you touch a live wire.

Always make sure that the circuit you intend to work on is not turned on…then you won’t have to worry whether or not you are going to become a conductor.

Installing Electrical Components

Even if you have no desire to work on your electrical system, for safety reasons you should know how to turn off the electricity to your house. Fortunately, it is an easy process, detailed in如何关闭房屋的电力

Part of your home’s electrical system functioning safely is having the capacity to power all the appliances and devices you have or plan to purchase. We show you how to calculate your home’s energy usage. Then, in如何映射房屋电路,我们讨论为什么要了解房屋的电气系统是个好主意。

Electrical circuit breaker panel controls the electrical system.© Don Vandervort, HomeTips

简短的电术表

您应该知道的伏特,安培,瓦特,导体和阻力工作如何

安培(或放大器)
How much current moves through a wire in one second is measured in amperes. Basically, the larger the size of wire, the greater the ampere capacity. This unit is based on the number of electrons flowing past a given point per second.

Branch Circuit
许多电路中的任何一个在整个房屋中分发电力。

电路
两条或多个电线为电流提供了一条路径,从源流通过电力从源流动,然后回到源。

导体
任何允许电力流过的东西都称为导体。铜线是出色的导体,因为它允许自由流动,并且电阻很少。较便宜的替代品是铝和铝制的铜。

Current
电子通过导体的运动或流动;用安培测量。

地面
Any conducting body, such as a metal cold-water pipe or a metal rod driven solidly into the earth, that gives electrical current a path to the ground.

Gounding wire
导体that grounds a metal component but does not carry current during normal operation.

Hot wire
Ungrounded conductor carrying current forward from the source. Usually identified by black or red insulation, but may be any color other than white, gray, or green.

Kilowatt-hour (KWH):
Unit used for metering and selling electricity. One kilowatt-hour equals 1,000 watts used for one hour.

中性线:
地面ed conductor that completes a circuit by providing a return path to the source. Neutral wires are always identified by white or gray insulation.

Pigtail splice:
A connection of three or more electrical wires.

Resistance
电路中阻碍电流流动流的任何东西都称为电阻或阻抗。电阻以所谓的欧姆测量。

伏特
正如打开齿轮时的水从水龙头中倒出一样,当开关打开开关时,电力也会通过电线移动。在这两种情况下,压力的释放都会导致能量流,并且在电力的情况下,该流量以伏特为单位。公用事业公司通常为120个家庭设定电压,尽管目前的电压从115到125不等。

瓦特
每秒消耗的电量由所谓的瓦特测量,该瓦特通过将伏特时间放大器乘以计算。大多数家用电气使用量在千瓦时或小时乘以1,000瓦的时间内计费。

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关于唐·范德沃特
Don Vandervort has developed his expertise for more than 30 years, as Building Editor for Sunset Books, Senior Editor at Home Magazine, author of more than 30 home improvement books, and writer of countless magazine articles. He appeared for 3 seasons on HGTV’s “The Fix,” and served as MSN’s home expert for several years. Don founded HomeTips in 1996.阅读有关Don Vandervort的更多信息