关于建筑装饰,细节,米兰和常用材料的深入购买指南,用于创造外部装饰修剪件。

architectural trim detailing
Gingerbread detailing gives this classic home its architectural style.Morguefile

您是否曾在经典旧金山维多利亚女王时尚的复杂姜饼,欣赏庄严的南部殖民地,或享受手工锻炼的手工锻炼细节?

One feature that all outstanding traditional-style homes share is great architectural millwork: the moldings, posts, columns, and other detailing applied to house exteriors.

Greek Revival, Colonial, Georgian, Craftsman—these classic house styles as well as several others rely heavily upon columns as key architectural components. In fact, columns have returned to popularity not only for these traditional homes but also for many newer house styles to add visual interest, extend the façade of the house, and support porches. For more about columns, seeArchitectural Column Buying Guide

在本周分的这一部分中,您将找到有关房屋上使用的架构细节和列类型的有用信息。

New architectural detailing, columns, and similar millwork are made from a variety of materials. Here is a closer look at each:

Composite Trim Materials

PrimeTrim exterior and interior trim from Georgia-Pacific is an all-wood composite that is highly resistant to rot and decay and has no knots, finger joints, or defects. It is sold factory-primed on the face and two edges and is said to require re-painting less than traditional wood trim. It is made in 16-foot lengths and may have either a smooth or textured surface.

膏药装饰和细节

Plaster has been used for centuries to create interesting detailing. On building exteriors, it is used for some columns, corbels, wall plaques, and other small details.

对于石膏来说,这是全自然的;它由石膏制成,通常用大麻加固。但必须密封防水保护。

石膏铸造设计,在谢尔比维尔,Tenn,是一家通过邮购销售广泛的股票部分的公司,可以通过请求定制零件。

聚氨酯泡沫装饰

New moldings and architectural elements are commonly made from high-density polyurethane foam. Easy to cut and fasten with standard woodworking tools, polyurethane isn’t subject to some problems associated with wood: shrinkage, expansion, warping, splintering, and decay.

模压细节通常是uV抑制底漆和白色丙烯酸饰面的。组分可以用非穿透染色涂漆或染色,并且与木材的表面不同,聚氨酯上的表面处理趋于持续稍长。

Unlike wood moldings that are often combined from several different pieces, these products are one piece, which makes them much more affordable to install than wood.

许多不同的组件可用。最大的这些产品,蓄电池制造商,造成3,500多种款式和尺寸。如果您找不到适合您的股票,您可以将其定制为您的规格。NMC焦点和奥克斯装饰还在美国的全系列产品。

由聚氨酯制成的典型产品包括门环绕(完整或用独立的泥浆,壁橱和鞋子),装饰窗头,窗户下的凸起板,装饰滚动支架,山墙端装饰,角饰,百叶窗,挡板块拱腹,檐口造型等等。

许多房主在制造商的说明之后自己安装聚氨酯成型。这些材料用常规木工锯切切割(一个特殊的斜箱可用于大型型材)。它们通常用整理钉子粘在一起,但是使用特殊粘合剂用于加入模制品,该模具可以保证不破裂或分开。小型档案与木材类似,但更大的轮廓更经济,因为它们是单件。

For mail-order catalogs or the names of nearby dealers, you can contact the companies directly. Because the offerings are so vast, the best way to check prices is to get a catalog or look online. For example, Orac Decor’s most popular crown moldings range from about $10 per lineal foot to $17 per foot. All are sold in 6 1/2-foot lengths.

木制装饰和细节

木质细节易于切割和紧固,耐用,并重要恢复纯粹主义者 - 真实的。松树,软木,非常常用;杨树是一个适度定价的硬木。也使用其他物种,如红木,雪松和橡木。虽然一些物种,如红木和雪松心材,但对腐烂具有自然耐药性,但必须保护所有木材免受污点或油漆的风化。为了保证持续保护,必须每隔几年重新采购这项完成。

Ornate architectural detailing is fashioned from wood.
Ornate architectural detailing is fashioned from wood.© Elena Elisseeva | Dreamstime.com

木姜饼,中心柱,玄关的帖子,模具ings, and similar wooden millwork are made both by small local mills and by large mills that distribute to home improvement centers, lumberyards, and millwork shops, and sell directly online and through mail-order catalogs.

两个这样的公司,提供products by mail order are Silverton Victorian Millworks and Vintage Wood Works. These companies have many stock components and will produce custom components.

How much does wooden detailing cost? Because the offerings are so varied, even ballpark prices are almost impossible to give. Silverton’s popular Colorado handrail, which is 2 inches by 2 3/4 inches, runs about $4.50 per lineal foot in hemlock and $7.50 per lineal foot in oak. The best way to see the selections and pinpoint prices is to look at manufacturer sites online or request a catalog.

In general, quality wood is a scarce and expensive resource-and you pay for it accordingly. Wood meant to be painted is considerably less expensive than material meant to be finished naturally or stained with a transparent finish. When choosing wood, you must also consider the fact that many types of moldings are actually built up on site from several molding profiles; both labor and material costs can escalate with the degree of complexity.

Architectural Millwork Terminology

Here are some of the basic terms that are used for describing architectural millwork:

拱环。Half-round or elliptical trim mounted above a door or window.

Bracket。Filigree or ornamental blocks between a vertical support and horizontal member. Brackets usually provide crossbracing or support between a post and beam or beam and cornice.

Capital。列或利用斯特的装饰顶部。

illustration of Victorian house with various types of molding and millwork
Types of Architectural and Decorative Millwork©Don Vandervort, HomeTips

Corbel。A short block or bracket projecting from a wall, often meant to provide support for a horizontal member. See什么是柯克尔?以下。

Cornice。A projection at the top of a wall, under a roof’s eaves.

Dentil blocks。Blocks attached to a wall in a toothed pattern.

牙线成型。A toothed moulding attached to a wall. See BELOW for more.

山墙装饰。Triangular-shaped filigree or panel fit into the rake end of a gable roof.

Header or head。A horizontal projection over the top of a window or doorway.

基石。一个角度块以集管或地幔的门或窗户为中心。

百叶窗。Slatted panels of various shapes mounted in the upper portion of a gable wall to provide attic ventilation.

Mantel。A horizontal projection over the top of a doorway.

模型。各种装饰件,通常销售长度。

Pediment。A peaked, rounded, or other decorative panel directly above a doorway.

柳条潜水员。Decorative vertical columns attached to the wall or frame at either side of a doorway.

Quoins。Rectangular blocks that extend up the corner of a building.

Shutters。Operable or decorative window covers mounted to each side of a window.

Dentil Molding

Architectural Crown Dentil Molding©HomeTips

牙线成型, a small rectangular block that, when repeated, resembles a row of spaced teeth, is applied to houses as a type of decorative trim. From the Latin word ”dent,” meaning tooth, dentil moulding first appeared in 16th-century France.

在科林斯建筑中常见的是,这种类型的幻想厂通常沿着传统家居的坐标或檐口钉在筋膜下方,或者它可以作为一种房间天花板周边周围的皇冠成型而安装。

In the past, dentil molding was tediously made, piece by piece, from wood or plaster. Today, it is still made that way, but you can take a short cut to achieve the same look. You can buy lengths of single-piece polyurethane foam or vinyl molding, which are more affordable and less prone to decay, shrinkage, peeling, and other problems common to built-up millwork.

什么是柯克尔?

A corbel is an architectural projection or bracket-like support that steps out from a wall to hold a beam or other weight, although some corbels are purely decorative.

Architectural corbel

A corbel, sometimes called corbelling, may be bricks or stones set out from the wall’s face, or it may be a short, sometimes carved, piece of wood. Corbel is also used as a verb: To corbel out means to build a corbel. The Old French word ”corbel stems” from the Latincorvus., for raven, possibly referring to early gargoyles.

Corbel在15世纪出现了一个建筑术语,表明墙壁的投射,旨在支持重量。经典的法国建筑师对Corbel的化妆品相当具体,指出了Corbel的侧面垂直于墙壁,并且它比其高度更进一步投影。

在英格兰,Corbel严格是一个技术架构术语,直到沃尔特斯科特爵士在他的1805个小说“最后的吟游诗人”时,他写道:“这座股份有限公司被雕刻怪诞和严峻。”

The term “architectural millwork” encompasses a range of materials and products. Also known as “architectural trim,” “architectural ornamentation,” “detailing,” “carpenter art,” or simply “trim,” this refers to the shutters that flank windows, pediments and pilasters that surround doors, dentil and crown moldings, columns, and other elements that add interest and anchor a house’s architecture in the vernacular of a given period and style.

Much millwork serves a functional role, too. Moldings hide the transitions between differing materials, and columns provide support, for example. Structural columns are made from wood, extruded aluminum, or fiberglass composites. Non-structural, decorative columns, made from polymers, are hollow in the center to allow for a wood or metal post.

If you own an older traditional house-or even intend to build a traditional-style home-it pays to be familiar with decorative millwork. The trim of many older homes often has been removed or, where it has not been removed, it’s in shoddy condition, because millwork is particularly vulnerable to the abuses of harsh weather. Some vinyl siding manufacturers offer a range of decorative classic millwork that coordinates with their systems. These include door and window surrounds, shutters, corner posts, dentil moldings, and more.

The traditional material for architectural detailing is wood-typically pine, fir, redwood, or cedar. Ornate patterns of molding and millwork are made up by combining a variety of simpler wood molding profiles.


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About Don Vandervort
Don Vandervort has developed his expertise for more than 30 years, as Building Editor for Sunset Books, Senior Editor at Home Magazine, author of more than 30 home improvement books, and writer of countless magazine articles. He appeared for 3 seasons on HGTV’s “The Fix,” and served as MSN’s home expert for several years. Don founded HomeTips in 1996.Read more about Don Vandervort